A period of time in the middle ages from the 11th to 13th centuries where a series of military actions were undertaken on behalf of the pope and religious beliefs. Knights would travel to the holy lands from the Muslims. These holy lands were once occupied by christian forces but were taken over by Muslim forces. There were nine crusades in all.
Religiously inspired medieval military expeditions, usually to the Middle East, "to free the Holy Sites from the Infidel."
There were eight main crusades, proclaimed by the various Popes and rulers:
1) 1096-99: Pope Urban II: To aid the Greeks against Seljuk Turks, liberate Jerusalem and the "Holy Land" from the Seljuks, and safeguard pilgrim routes to the Holy Sepulchre.
2) 1147-48: Pope Eugeneus III: To aid the crusader states following the Muslim re-conquest of Edessa in 1144.
3) 1189-92: Pope Gregory VIII: Following Saladin's victory at the battle of Hattin in 1187 and his subsequent successes.
4. 1202-04: Pope Innocent III: To recover the "Holy Places".
5. 1217-21: Pope Innocent III: When the six year truce with Egypt expired.
6. 1228-29: Emperor Frederick II: He had married the heiress to the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1225.
7. 1248-54: Pope Innocent IV: After the Egyptians and Khorezmians captured Jerusalem in 1244.
8. 1270-72: Proclaimed following Mameluk conquest of Arsuf, Caesarea, Haifa (1265), Antioch and Joppa (1268).
This was a very murky period, driven by fierce power struggles between European states and several competing European religious power groups. According to some accounts, the various religious groups in the Middle East had coexisted fairly peacefully until the crusades. The crusades caused lasting turmoil and hostilities.
Some accounts claim that some European monasteries and religious orders became very wealthy by acquiring the land and property of people who were raising money to fund the expense of joining the crusades.
However, many improvements in castle design, weapons, metals and other technologies were brought back by returning crusaders. Hemyock has features and archways similar to those of crusader castles in Jordan.

Medieval glossary. 2014.

Look at other dictionaries:

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